Types of Information Systems

Information systems developed for different purposes, depending on business needs.Information systems can be divided into several sections (Fig. 1):

1. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
TPS is a computerized information system developed to process data in large quantities for routine business transactions such as payroll and inventory. TPS functioning at the level organization that enables organizations to interact with the external environment. Data generated by the TPS can be viewed or used by the manager.

2. Office Automation Systems (OAS) and Knowledge Work Systems (KWS)
OAS and KWS works at the level of knowledge. OAS supports data workers, who usually do not creating new knowledge but only to analyze the information in such a way as to transform the data or memanipulasikannya certain ways before overall spread with the organization and sometimes outside the organization. Aspect-OAS aspects such as word processing, spreadsheets, electronic scheduling, and communication via voice mail, email and video conferencing. KWS supports professional workers such as scientists, engineers and doctors to help creating new knowledge and enable them contributed to the organization or community.

3. Management Information System (MIS)

SIM does not replace the TPS, but supports the spectrum of tasks of building a broader of TPS, including decision analysis and decision-makers. SIM produce information that used to make decisions, and can also petrified unify some functions of information businesses that have been computerized (database).

4. Decision Support Systems (DSS)
DSS is similar to a SIM as it uses the database as a data source. DSS stems from SIM due emphasis on the function of supporting the decision makers throughout the stages, although the actual decisions remain the exclusive authority decision makers.

5. Expert System (ES) and Artificial Intelligence (AI)
AI is intended to develop machines that function intelligently. Two ways to AI research is to understand natural language and analyze its ability to thinking through the problem until the conclusion logiknya. Expert systems using approaches AI thinking to solve problems and give the user through the business. Expert system (Also called knowledge-based systems) to effectively capture and use knowledge an expert to solve the problems experienced in an organization. In contrast to DSS, DSS left the final decision for the decision maker while the expert system selects the solution best against a particular issue. Basic components of expert system knowledge base is yaikni an interference engine that connects users to the system through processing
questions via structured language and anatarmuka users.

6. Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) and Computer-Support Collaborative Work Systems

If a group, need to work together to make a decision and not a semi-structured structured, then the group Decision support systems create a solution. GDSS is intended to bring groups together to solve the problem by providing assistance in the form opinions, questionnaires, consultations and scenarios. Sometimes called the CSCW GDSS that includes supporting software called "groupware" for team collaboration through computer connected to the network.

7. Executive Support Systems (ESS)

ESS depends on the information produced by TPS and MIS and ESS help executives manage interaction with the external environment by providing graphics and communications support in places that can be accessed like an office. Examples of information systems, among others:

1. Flight reservation system, used in a travel agency to serve booking / ticket purchase.
2. Systems POS (Point Of Sale) is applied at the supermarket with a barcode reader support to speed up data entry.
3. Academic service system that allows students to obtain academic data and enroll in courses taken each semester.
4. Sales on credit systems that can monitor customer debt maturities.
5. Smart card system that can be used to determine the medical history of patients.
6. carry out the numerical computation, large-volume and high speed.
7. provide kominukasi within the organization or between organizations are cheap.
8. store information in a very large amount in a small space, but easily accessible.
9. allows accessing information that is very much around the world quickly and cheap.
10. improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the people who work in groups in a place or multiple locations.
11. automate business processes and tasks are done manually.
12. speed up typing and editing.
13. financing is cheaper than processing manually.


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